[28] The bombings shocked the Moroccan people, making religious fundamentalism unpopular and enabling reformists to take advantage of this change in Morocco's political climate to spread their message. "Assessing the Impact of the 2004 Moudawana on Women's Rights in Morocco." While polygamy had become nearly nonexistent, she noted, one out of every ten marriages still involved a minor as of 2007, and the system was facing organizational challenges. [5] Ibid. 2001. The king also cited his role as “Commander of the Faithful,” referring to his role as both political and religious leader of Morocco, and pointed out that as such, “I can neither prohibit what is legal nor sanction that which is illicit.” When announcing the reforms, the king emphasized their compatibility with Islamic principles, quoting supporting passages from the Qur'an and the Hadith. 9 Oct. 2005. … Maroko adalah negara Afrika Utara, yang terletak di ujung barat laut Afrika di ujung benua Eropa. "Morocco/Western Sahara." مدونة السير بالمغرب pdf. However, the UAF held debates with these organizations to convince them that the Moudawana reforms were worth fighting for.[32]. "[4], Using the momentum generated by the One Million Signatures campaign and the 1993 Moudawana reforms, the UAF and other women's groups continued to lobby the government by raising awareness of other issues affecting women such as rape and domestic violence. ALIMAROC ADDICT est un Blog pour les acheteurs Marocain. [19], Other critics of the Mudawana point out that irrespective of the value of the reforms themselves, the process by which they were achieved is flawed, creates difficulties for their implementation, and can even be considered counter-productive to the process of democratization. Comme indiqué au … [14] Ibid. Towards the end of his reign, in the late 1990s, King Hassan II opened up the political process to opposition parties, such as the Socialist Party (USFP) and the Parti du Progres et du Socialism (PPS). [33] An important medium for disseminating their message was the ‘women's press,' consisting of newspapers such as 8 Mars and Kalima, which discussed taboo topics like domestic violence, single motherhood, and homosexuality. In Morocco's rural and underdeveloped areas, legal equality is perceived as less of an immediate priority than basic, everyday needs. Sater, James. Human Rights Education Associates. It can be argued that while the reforms do represent a significant transformation of women's rights, they also serve to solidify and expand the authority of the monarch as the defender or insurer of those rights. [27], The public mood also shifted in the reformists' direction after the terrorist attacks by Salafia Jihadia suicide bombers in Casablanca in 2003. This unofficial English translation of the 2004 Moroccan Family Law (Moudawana) was prepared by a team of English and Arabic speaking lawyers and a professional Arabic-English Moroccan translator at the Global Rights head Office in Washington and their field Office in Morocco. After a series of demonstrations, educational seminars, government lobbying, and a One Million Signatures petition campaign, King Hassan II was forced to take action. Les mouvements féministes au Maroc ont compris qu'ils ne pouvaient imposer un féminisme laïc même si le combat à la base est fort similaire (en gros le féminisme actuel dans le monde arabe correspond aux deux premières vagues du féminisme du 19e et 20e siècle en Europe Occidental et en Europe Occidental avec le mouvement metoo on en est à la 4ème vague), on ne peut nier le … 9hab Maroc 2011 - Metacafe (lahwa 9hab) zouk dial lahwa is located in Tanger. 2009. [9] For her membership in an illegal Marxist group known as "March 23", Jbabdi was imprisoned from 1977 until her trial and release in 1980. An Overview . Le Code Marocain de la Famille « Moudawana » Communiqué de Presse, Droits des Femmes et Justice de Genre, Maroc / Sahara Occidental. Association des femmes du Maroc, 2004, L’égalité entre les Hommes et les Femmes, point de vue de la population marocaine, Rapport d’analyse, Rabat. [3] Ibid. Nous avons créé ce blog afin d’aider les personnes à faire leurs achats sur les sites de Ecommerce. Zvan, Katja. The history of Morocco shows a divide between the rigid and enforceable nature of the French civil code and the traditional . [37] Ibid. "Progressive or Conservative, Women Influence Islam.". C’est donc en 1957 que le Maroc, entreprend de codifier le droit de la famille, sous l’appellation de Moudawana ou Code du Statut personnel. The activities of the UNFM focused less on legal reform and more on professional and training programs for women. [13] In addition, the Mudawana is the only section of Moroccan law that relies primarily on Islamic sources, rather than Spanish or French civil codes, which gave it a greater sense of immutability and contributed to the difficulty of reforming it later on. Following this initial change, increased activism resulted in the articulation of a Plan of Action for the Integration of Women in Development, which drew heavily from secular, rights-based frameworks. PDF. [2] Zvan, Katja. [29] Ibid. Au Maroc, les mariages polygames gagnent du terrain, et ce, malgré la mise en place de la loi instaurée en 2004. The PAIWD was formulated and promoted in the context of Morocco's 1993 ratification of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), the Platform for Action established at the Beijing Conference on Women in 1995, and the Moroccan government's subsequent commitment to developing a national strategy to address the status of women that year. La Moudawana ou Code du statut personnel marocain est le droit de la famille marocain codifié en 1958 sous le règne du roi Mohammed V.Ce code a été amendé une première fois en 1993 par Hassan II, puis révisé en février 2004 par le Parlement marocain et promulgué par le roi Mohammed VI le 10 octobre 2004.Cette dernière révision améliore entre autres les droits des femmes او را… https://t.co/ghcnvfLQWJ, RT @TavaanaTech: یوتیوب در کدام کشورها فیلتر است؟ 25 novembre 2020 à 13 h 35 Alerte météo au Maroc: averses orageuses et chutes de neige à partir de ce mercredi; 25 novembre 2020 à 12 h 55 Zagora: portée disparue, la petite Marwa a été retrouvée saine et sauve; 25 novembre 2020 à 12 h 09 Message du roi Mohammed VI au président du Suriname; 25 novembre 2020 à 11 h 43 [20] Ibid. [13] Ibid. [27] Ibid. Le Conseil de la communauté marocaine à l’étranger (CCME) a organisé, vendredi 14 février 2020, une table-ronde sur le thème « médias et nouvelles technologies : construire une image réelle du Maroc à l’étranger ». 15 Feb. 2008. The Mudawana (or Moudawana, Arabic: المدوّنة‎), short for mudawwanat al-aḥwāl al-shakhṣiyyah (مدونة الأحوال الشخصية),[1] is the personal status code, also known as the family code, in Moroccan law. [9] Supporters point out that the reforms indicate a democratization of Moroccan society on two fronts: because of the sense of pluralism and debate they sparked in the public sphere, and because of their movement towards an individual-based rights system, as opposed to one based on collective rights. [2], Furthermore, just as some scholars praise what they see as a confirmation of the compatibility of Islam and gender equality, others point out that by requiring the framing of gender equality within an Islamic framework, the means by which Muslim women can advocate for equality is inherently limited. [2] He ordered that a new code be drafted in consultation with some women's groups, to be submitted to him for approval. In 1992, they launched the One Million Signatures campaign, which aimed to gather a million signatures on a petition to reform the Moudawana. ", Ghazalla, Iman. [35] Ghazalla. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs. [6], Many activists and scholars embrace the reforms as evidence that gender equality is compatible with Islamic principles; indeed, some scholars have argued that what they consider to be an authentic interpretation of Shari'a actually requires reforms in the name of gender equality. "Progressive or Conservative, Women Influence Islam." This included the founding of many new women's associations, many of which began as affiliates of existing political parties. Civil Society and Political Change in Morocco. Its first version was written in 1957-8 by a group of ten male religious scholars (Ulama) working under the auspices of the monarchy; its substance drew heavily on classical Maliki law. [34] However, since more than half of the female population was illiterate at the time when these newspapers developed, there was a need for other forms of outreach, ones with a more widespread impact for building support across the country. Major components of the reforms included raising the minimum legal age of marriage to 18 for men and women, establishing joint responsibility for the family among men and women, limiting the terms of polygamy and divorce, and granting women more rights in the negotiation of marriage contracts, among other provisions. [15], In 1969, King Hassan II created the Union Nationale des Femmes Marocaines (UNFM), an organization with the stated goal of improving the social and economic status of women in Morocco. Selat Gibraltar memisahkan Spanyol dari Maroko dengan rentang air 13 kilometer (8,1 mil). Le Royaume est signataire de la Convention sur l’élimination de toutes les formes de discrimination à l’égard des femmes (CEDEF). [10] Ibid. Its most recent revision, passed by the Moroccan parliament in 2004, has been praised by human rights activists for its measures to address women's rights and gender equality within an Islamic legal framework.[2]. Ouarzazate Le tourisme dans la région Drâa Tafilalet est face à un nouveau départ. [26] Ibid. However, on the same day, an alliance of opponents to the movement organized a march in Casablanca, where the women, all veiled, marched in separate lines from the men. Mehdi 15/09/2020 23:18. il est pas marocain, c'est completement illegal au maroc. Morocco made a landmark reform to its family code (moudawana) in 2004; it is only the second Arab country (after Tunisia) to have introduced such progressive measures for women.Led by their own vigorous movement and supported by the king, women won greater equality – notably the right to marry without the permission of a male family member and to initiate divorce on a fairer basis. After the watered-down reforms passed by King Hassan II in 1993, it became clear that the reformists would need to adopt a different approach if they were to succeed. informal justice system as well as . Vision and Motivation. Divorce proceedings take place in a secular court, rather than before a religious official. [9] Slymovics, Susan. 2008. [6] Many argue that the electoral system's main function is to serve as a means for the monarchy to create and manipulate a dependent class of political elites. Finally, the number of women arranging their own marriages increased by over 14% between 2006 and 2007. 19 Dec. 2003.; Abiad, Nisrine. Civil Society and Political Change in Morocco. Once a woman comes of age, she does not need a marital tutor (a male relative, usually the father who speaks on her behalf). [20], Logistically, the new code created a new system of family courts to handle family law matters, presenting the complex challenges of establishing a new, nationwide system from scratch while provoking opposition among adouls, the local legal officials who previously had jurisdiction over marriage and family matters. PDF. 1,063 likes. [11], Many groups and individuals (both in Morocco and abroad) reacted favorably to the revised code, pointing out that from an economic perspective, it finally legally recognized women's economic contributions to the household – not an insignificant point, as in 2000, women represented over a third of the Moroccan workforce. [6] Other problems with the judicial system include a lack of training among the judiciary and provisions of the law that allow individual judges to consult principles of Shari'a in situations that are not covered by the Mudawana. Tous les ans, un millier de mariages polygames sont célébrés. The Moroccan regime has always been repressive, intimidating and disempowering political opposition members since gaining independence in 1956. Leila Hanafi . Huffington Post. "My goal now is to spread the word to some of the most remote areas of Morocco – to illiterate men and women who have little access to objective information about the Moudawana reforms, and little ability to obtain legal assistance," says UAF founder Latifa Jbabdi. Sharia, Muslim States, and International Human Rights Treaty Obligations. Women's Rights in the Middle East and North Africa, Freedom House. Dec 8, 2020 Spread the love Rabat – Women must be equal partners in peacebuilding and conflict prevention efforts, Morocco’s Minister of Foreign Affairs Nasser Bourita said Tuesday. This occurred shortly after Mohammad VI succeeded his father as King, and within a year of the rallies, he announced the formation of a commission to further reform the Mudawana. admin March 16, 2020 March 16, 2020 No Comments on LA MOUDAWANA MAROCAINE PDF 8 févr. 2009. "Assessing the Impact of the 2004 Moudawana on Women's Rights in Morocco." While this incident served as a major roadblock for the UAF, King Mohammed VI's arrival onto the political scene was a blessing in disguise. We thought that we have succeeded in breaking the taboo and the sacredness of the Moudawana. "Sculpting the Rock of Women's Rights: The Role of Women's Organizations in Promoting the National Plan of Action to Integrate Women in Development in Morocco. Jordan, Egypt and Tunisia have started discussions on modifying their family laws in similar directions. que le Maroc devienne, avec l'aide de Dieu, un grand chantier de production, générateur de richesse. Since the passage of these reforms, women's groups in Morocco have been lobbying to change some discriminatory laws that survived the reforms. [22] Most men who oppose the reforms believe the law negatively impacts them, gives greater weight to their spouses' demands, and view it as contrary to their religious beliefs. [13], As the reform campaign garnered attention and supporters, it also gained some enemies in its fight for women's equality. Although there were calls for reform to the family law in the 1960s and 70s, its religious origins made amending it a challenge, and no serious movement for reform emerged until the 1980s. نظام جمهوری اسلامی دور تازه‌ای ازنقض آزادی بیان شهروندان در فضای مجازی را ک… https://t.co/sOfqdnEFvr, حذف خودکار تاریخچه یوتیوب As a result of newly created civil society organizations, including many women's organizations, and increased international attention on women's rights, modest reforms to the Mudawana were enacted in 1993 under King Hassan II. "This Time I Choose When to Leave: An Interview with Fatna El-Bouih." [7] Malchiodi, Beth. In 2003, he announced his intention to replace the code entirely, citing his authority as both spiritual and political leader of the nation, and by January 2004, the Moroccan parliament ratified the new version. La loi en vigueur jusqu'en 1993 permettait à l'homme musulman d'avoir quatre femmes officielles au maximum (art. [9][16] Still others point out that in an even broader sense, the universal notion of formal equality itself may not be evenly applicable or relevant to women from different social, cultural, and national backgrounds. [11] Moreover, many scholars and activists have pointed out that there was strong support for reform from both sides of the debate; the conflict lay in the source of the reforms and in questions of cultural authenticity.[19]. The minimum age for women to marry was raised from 15 to 18, the same as the men's minimum age; women no longer needed to obtain approval from a guardian before marrying; men were forbidden from unilaterally divorcing their wives; women were given the right to divorce their husbands; and while it was still permitted for men to have multiple wives, restrictions were imposed to make polygamous marriages harder to obtain and only with the permission of a judge.[7]. Though the Moudawana had inspired protest and calls for reform since its adoption in 1958, it was not until the UAF's One Million Signatures campaign, spearheaded by Jbabdi, that the Moudawana became a major national issue. [9][11] This move demonstrated significant political support behind the idea of reform, and framed the issue more as one of politics and human rights than religion (indicated in part by the delivery of the petition to the prime minister, the nominal head of the government, as opposed to the king of Morocco, who is also a spiritual leader). [7] These conditions have impacted the process of reforming Moroccan family law significantly. Slymovics, Susan. The movement did not stop once they had achieved their original goals. [9] However, some scholars have argued that just because the movement was started among elites, it does not necessarily follow that they are incongruent with grassroots interests. "The Politics of the Reform of the New Family Law (the Moudawana). [29] A few months later in October 2003, King Mohammed announced his decision to reform the Moudawana. Die Autorin Narjis Lamzari analysiert anhand von Interviews, die sie vor Ort durchgeführt hat, die aktuellen Veränderungen, die sich auf Grund der neuen Moudawana in Marokko ergeben haben. Des nostalgiques de Benkirane, en Allemagne, quittent le PJD 25 novembre 2020 à 9 h 31. Of Moroccans who have heard of the new Mudawana, 85% of women and 59% of men support the reforms. On October 10, 2003, the king presented Parliament with a plan to replace the old Mudawana entirely, on the commission's recommendation, describing the new law code as “modern” and intended to “free women from the injustices they endure, in addition [to] protecting children’s rights and safeguarding men’s dignity.”[11] In doing so, he emphasized that the reforms were not intended to address women's rights exclusively, but to address issues associated with the family as a whole. [33] Ibid. Bravo pour cette projection ! [36] Robinson. Ministere des Habous et des affaires islamiques - Rabat - Maroc Tel: (212) 5 37 76 68 51 - (212) 5 37 76 68 01 - Rabat - Maroc Tel: (212) 5 37 76 68 51 - (212) 5 37 76 68 01 Souss Sahara Atlantique Voyage.Le Portugal, premier pays européen à recevoir le label “Safe Travels”. The parent who gains custody of the child keeps the house. In the end, the civil society associations that lobbied for the reforms had to work within the existing authoritarian system, appealing directly to the king for change rather than working through a democratic political process. [6], According to a 2010 survey, awareness of the reforms varies widely within the Moroccan population, with younger, urban, and educated women far more likely to have heard of the law and have some familiarity with its provisions than women in rural areas, those with less education, and older women. 9 June 2009. August 2020 . [25] Ibid. Vidéo. On March 5, 2001, a year after the rallies in Casablanca and Rabat, Mohammed VI announced the formation of a commission to reform the Mudawana, members of which included a Supreme Court justice, religious scholars, political representatives, and intellectuals from a number of different backgrounds, including female representatives from women's organizations.

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